Monday, November 21, 2011

Mar Tech Systems Water Blog

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Insights about industrial and commercial water utilities from an experienced insider.

Loraine A. Huchler, P. E., CMC is a chemical engineer with an insider's view of manufacturing and commercial operations. Her work as a consultant has provided insight into the challenges to remain competitive in industrial operations, especially refining and petrochemical. She is an acknowledged expert in industrial and commercial water quality with numerous publications, including a book, "Operating Practices in Industrial Water Management, Influent Water Systems," the first of a four book series.

Tuesday, November 15, 2011

Electrocoagulation As a Wastewater Treatment


From the The Third Annual Australian Environmental Engineering Research Event. 23-26 November Castlemaine, Victoria 1999


ELECTROCOAGULATION AS A WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Peter Holt, Geoffrey Barton and Cynthia Mitchell Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Sydney, New South Wales, 2006.

ABSTRACT

Coagulation and flocculation are traditional methods for the treatment of polluted water. Electrocoagulation presents a robust novel and innovative alternative in which a sacrificial metal anode doses water electrochemically. This has the major advantage of providing active cations required for coagulation, without increasing the salinity of the water.

Electrocoagulation is a complex process with a multitude of mechanisms operating synergistically to remove pollutants from the water. A wide variety of opinions exist in the literature for key mechanisms and reactor configurations. A lack of a systematic approach has resulted in a myriad of designs for electrocoagulation reactors without due consideration of the complexity of the system. A systematic, holistic approach is required to understand electrocoagulation and its controlling parameters. This will enable a priori prediction of the treatment of various pollutant types.

KEYWORDS

Electrocoagulation, electroflotation, wastewater treatment, sacrificial electrodes.

Saturday, October 22, 2011

Boilers & Thermic Fluid Heaters

BOILERS & THERMIC FLUID HEATERS


1. INTRODUCTION...........................................................................................1
2. TYPE OF BOILERS.......................................................................................2
3. ASSESSMENT OF A BOILER.....................................................................9
4. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES ...........................................26
5. OPTION CHECKLIST................................................................................32
6. WORKSHEETS AND OTHER TOOLS....................................................36
7. REFERENCES..............................................................................................41
1. INTRODUCTION

This section briefly describes the Boiler and various auxiliaries in the Boiler Room.
A boiler is an enclosed vessel that provides a means for combustion heat to be transferred to water until it becomes heated water or steam. The hot water or steam under pressure is then usable for transferring the heat to a process. Water is a useful and inexpensive medium for transferring heat to a process. When water at atmospheric pressure is boiled into steam its volume increases about 1,600 times, producing a force that is almost as explosive as gunpowder. This causes the boiler to be an equipment that must be treated with utmost care.

Friday, October 14, 2011

Download a Free Glossary of Boiler Terms



A


ABSOLUTE PRESSURE - Pressure above zero pressure; the sum of the gauge and atmospheric pressures.

ACCUMULATOR - (STEAM) A pressure vessel containing water and/or steam, which is used to store the heat of steam for use at a late period and at some lower pressure.

ACID CLEANING - The process of cleaning the interior surfaces of steam generating units by filling the unit with dilute acid accompanied by an inhibitor to prevent corrosion, and subsequently draining, washing and neutralizing the acid by a further wash of alkaline water.

ACIDITY - Represents the amount of free carbon dioxide, mineral acids and salts (especially sulphates of iron and aluminum) which hydrolyze to give hydrogen ions in water and is reported as milliequivalents per liter of acid, or ppm acidity as calcium carbonate, or pH the measure of hydrogen ions concentration.

ADIABATIC FLAME TEMPERATURE - The theoretical temperature that would be attained by the products of combustion provided the entire chemical energy of the fuel, the sensible heat content of the fuel and combustion above the datum temperature were transferred to the products of combustion. This assumes: No heat loss to surroundings and no dissociation.

AIR - The mixture of oxygen, nitrogen, and other gases, which with varying amounts of water vapor, forms the atmosphere of the earth.

AIR ATOMIZING OIL BURNER - A burner for firing oil in which the oil is atomized by compressed air, which is forced into and through one or more streams of oil which results in the breaking of the oil into a fine spray.

AIR DEFICIENCY - Insufficient air, in an air-fuel mixture, to supply the oxygen required for complete oxidation of the fuel.

AIR-FREE - The descriptive characteristic of a substance from which air has been removed.

AIR-FUEL RATIO - The ratio of the weight, or volume, of air to fuel.

AIR INFILTRATION - The leakage of air into a setting or duct.

AIR, SATURATED - Air which contains the maximum amount of water vapor that it can hold at its temperature and pressure.

AIR VENT - A valved opening in the top of the highest drum of a boiler or pressure vessel for venting air.

ALARM - A suitable horn, bell, light or other device which when operated will give notice of malfunction or off normal condition.

ALKALINITY - Represents the amount of carbonates, bicarbonates, hydroxides and silicates or phosphates in the water and is reported as grains per gallon, or ppm as calcium carbonate.

ALLOWABLE WORKING PRESSURE - See design pressure.

AMBIENT AIR - The air that surrounds the equipment. The standard ambient air for performance calculations is air at 80 °F, 60% relative humidity, and a barometric pressure of 29.921 in. Hg, giving a specific humidity of 0.013 lb of water vapor per lb of dry air.

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Guidelines for drinking-water quality, WHO


Guidelines for drinking-water quality, third edition, incorporating first and second addenda

Volume 1 - Recommendations

The third edition of the Guidelines has been comprehensively updated to take account of developments in risk assessment and risk management since the second edition. It describes a“Framework for Drinking-water Safety”and discusses the roles and responsibilities of different stakeholders, including the complementary roles of national regulators, suppliers, communities and independent “surveillance” agencies.
The first and second addenda, which update the third edition, have been incorporated in this volume. The first addedum includes more guidance on management of emergencies and unforeseen events, additions concerning chlorination by-products and developing standards for volatile substances, and several new fact sheets for chemical substances. The second addendum includes more guidance on household water management, rainwater harvesting, vended water, temporary water supplies, and pesticides used for vector control in drinking water sources. It also includes a series of new microbial and chemical fact sheets. Moreover, “expanded” fact sheets are included for key chemical risks such as arsenic, fluoride and nitrate/nitrite.
N.B Text changes arising from revisions to the First and Second Addendum are marked by a thin and thick black line in the left margin respectively.

Download the full document

Chemical Costs Of Water Treatment


CHEMICAL COSTS OF WATER TREATMENT DUE TO DIMINISHED WATER QUALITY: A CASE STUDY IN TEXAS

Abstract

The cost of municipal water treatment due to diminished water quality represents an important component of the societal costs of water pollution. Here, the chemical costs of municipal water treatment are expressed as a function of raw surface water quality. Data are used for a three year period for 12 water treatment plants in Texas. Results show that when regional raw water contamination is present, the chemical cost of water treatment is increased by $95 per million gallons from a base of $75. A one percent increase in turbidity is shown to increase chemical costs by one fourth of a percent.

Friday, September 2, 2011

New Book: Practical Boiler Water Treatment Handbook
























ISBN-13/EAN: 9780820601717
ISBN: 0820601713
Author: Natarajan Manivasakam
Chemical Publishing
Book - Hardback
Pub Date: Sept 22, 2011
572 pages

PART – I. BOILER BASICS -
PART – II. BOILER WATER TROUBLES -
PART – III. WATER QUALITY REQUIREMENTS AND TREATMENT PROGRAMS -
PART – IV. EXTERNAL TREATMENT -
PART – V. INTERNAL TREATMENT -
PART – VI. BOILER WATER TREATMENT – IMPORTANT CALCULATIONS -
PART – VII. BOILER STARTUP, CLEANING, LAYUP AND MAINTENANCE -
PART – VIII. CHEMICALS HANDLING, SOLUTION PREPARATION AND FEEDERS -
PART – IX. ANALYSIS OF WATER AND STEAM

CONTENTS -

PART – I. BOILER BASICS -
Chapter 1. Boiler – An Introduction -
Chapter 2. Classification of Boilers -
Chapter 3. Common Terms and Explanation -

PART – II. BOILER WATER TROUBLES -
Chapter 4. Impurities in Water and Their Effects -
Chapter 5. Boiler Water Troubles – A Prelude -
Chapter 6. Scale Formation -
Chapter 7. Silica Carryover -
Chapter 8. Scale Formation in Economizers -
Chapter 9. Super Heater and Turbine Deposits -
Chapter 10. Corrosion – Basic Information -
Chapter 11. General Corrosion (Overall Corrosion / Acidic Corrosion) -
Chapter 12. Dissolved Oxygen Corrosion (Pitting Corrosion) -
Chapter 13. Carbondioxide Corrosion -
Chapter 14. Corrosion caused by Unstable Salts -
Chapter 15. Corrosion caused by Other Substances -
Chapter 16. Corrosion caused by Chelants (Chelant Corrosion) -
Chapter 17. Caustic Embrittlement and Caustic Gouging -
Chapter 18. Hydrogen Embrittlement -
Chapter 19. Condensate Corrosion -
Chapter 20. Preboiler Corrosion -
Chapter 21. Economizer Corrosion -
Chapter 22. Super Heater and Turbine Corrosion -
Chapter 23. Foaming, Priming & Carryover -

PART – III. WATER QUALITY REQUIREMENTS AND TREATMENT PROGRAMS -
Chapter 24. Quality Requirements for Feed Water and Boiler Water -
Chapter 25. Objectives of Boiler Water Treatment -
Chapter 26. External Treatment and Internal Treatment -
Chapter 27. Water Treatment programs – Guidelines -

PART – IV. EXTERNAL TREATMENT -
Chapter 28. External Treatment – A Prelude -
Chapter 29. Coagulation (Removal of Color, Turbidity and Suspended Matter) -
Chapter 30. Filtration -
Chapter 31. Softening by Chemical Method (Lime – Soda Softening) -
Chapter 32. Ion Exchange Resins and Treatment Methods -
Chapter 33. Softening by Ion–Exchange Method -
Chapter 34. Dealkalization -
Chapter 35. Demineralization (Deionization) -
Chapter 36. Mixed Bed Deionization -
Chapter 37. Reverse Osmosis -
Chapter 38. Evaporation -
Chapter 39. Silica Removal -
Chapter 40. Oil Removal -
Chapter 41. Condensate Treatment (Condensate Polishing) -
Chapter 42. Deaeration (Mechanical Removal of Oxygen) -

PART – V. INTERNAL TREATMENT -
Chapter 43. Internal Boiler Water Treatment – A Prelude -
Chapter 44. Organic Polymers and Their Role as Scale Inhibitors, Dispersants and Sludge Conditioners in Boiler Water Treatment  -
Chapter 45. Internal Treatment – Chemical Feeding -
Chapter 46. Prevention of Scale Formation -
Chapter 47. Sludge Conditioning -
Chapter 48. Prevention of Corrosion – An Introduction -
Chapter 49. Prevention of Corrosion Due to Low pH -
Chapter 50. Prevention of Pitting Corrosion Using Oxygen Scavengers
(Chemical Removal of Oxygen) -
Chapter 51. Prevention of Caustic Embrittlement and Caustic Gouging -
Chapter 52. Prevention of Chelant Corrosion -
Chapter 53. Prevention of Condensate Corrosion -
Chapter 54. Prevention of Pre–Boiler Corrosion -
Chapter 55. Prevention of Economizer Corrosion -
Chapter 56. Prevention of Foaming, Priming & Carryover -
Chapter 57. Prevention of Silica Carryover -
Chapter 58. Boiler Blow Down -

PART – VI. BOILER WATER TREATMENT – IMPORTANT CALCULATIONS -
Chapter 59. Basic Conversion Factors -
Chapter 60. Water Softening – Calculations -
Chapter 61. Cycles of Concentration, Blowdown, Feed Water and Makeup Water – Calculations -
Chapter 62. Determination of Dosage of Chemicals -

PART – VII. BOILER START UP, CLEANING, LAY UP AND MAINTENANCE -
Chapter 63. Boiler Startup (Pre-operational Cleaning) -
Chapter 64. Descaling and Boiler Cleaning -
Chapter 65. Boiler LayUp -
Chapter 66. Boiler Maintenance -

PART – VIII. CHEMICALS HANDLING, SOLUTION PREPARATION AND FEEDERS -
Chapter 67. Chemicals Handling and Storage -
Chapter 68. Preparation of Solutions and Suspensions -
Chapter 69. Chemical Feeders -

PART – IX. ANALYSIS OF WATER AND STEAM -
Chapter 70. Control Parameters and Testing Schedule -
Chapter 71. Collection of Samples -
Chapter 72. Sampling of Boiler Water -
Chapter 73. Expression of Results -
Chapter 74. Electrical Conductivity -
Chapter 75. Dissolved Solids -
Chapter 76. pH Value -
Chapter 77. Acidity -
Chapter 78. Free Carbondioxide -
Chapter 79. Equivalent Mineral Acidity -
Chapter 80. Alkalinity -
Chapter 81. Hardness (Total) -
Chapter 82. Calcium -
Chapter 83. Magnesium -
Chapter 84. Sodium -
Chapter 85. Iron (Total) -
Chapter 86. Copper -
Chapter 87. Sulfate -
Chapter 88. Chloride -
Chapter 89. Silica -
Chapter 90. Dissolved Oxygen -
Chapter 91. Oxygen Absorbed (or) Permanganate Value -
Chapter 92. Oils & Grease -
Chapter 93. Phosphate -
Chapter 94. Sulfite -
Chapter 95. Hydrazine -
Chapter 96. Residual Chelant (EDTA) -
Chapter 97. Langelier Saturation Index, Ryznar Stability Index and Puckorius Scaling Index -
Chapter 98. Coagulant Demand (or) Jar Test -
Chapter 99. Silt Density Index [SDI] (or) Fouling Index -
Chapter 100. Measurement of Steam Purity -
Bibliography -
Appendix -
Index -

Thursday, July 28, 2011

Industrial Water Reuse

By Colin Frayne, Association of Water Technologies and Aquassurance Inc.
May 1, 2011

Colin Frayne's books on water treatment can be found here

Reduce, reuse, recycle are not just buzzwords: They are tools of an effective water management and treatment program that can help processors improve their bottom line.


The rapid growth of world population — doubling every 20 years and currently heading for 7 billion people — means significantly increased global water use and resultant decrease in availability on a per capita basis. Couple this with the fact that Brazil, Russia, India and China (collectively known as the BRIC countries), and countries in Southeast Asia such as Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam have both very young populations — all wanting the trappings of Western life — and are rapidly building up their own water-demanding industries and infrastructures. It is becoming clearer day by day that there soon will not be adequate readily available fresh water for all of us on this planet!

As a response to the unsustainable climate and resources position within which we find ourselves, in recent years, various national and international “green” organizations have sprung up. These organizations, focused on promoting conservation and sustainability, have developed best practices such as “green” water management programs for water-based heat-transfer systems. Also, the U.S. Department of Energy provides free Internet-based software for industrial water and energy assessments, optimization and savings.

How Much is too Much?

By Colin Frayne, for Association of Water Technologies and Aquassaurance inc.
May 1, 2011

Increasing cycles of concentration can allow processors to reuse waters and minimize water use. The typical practical contaminant maximums in recirculating cooling water are shown.
  • Alkalinity: total alkalinity (M alkalinity). A practical limit is often 500 mg/L as CaCO3, although up to 800 mg/L CaCO3might be achievable, depending upon water chemistry.
  • Ammonia (NH3).Up to 20 to 40 mg/L can be tolerated if the copper content is low, water temperatures are not too high, good microbiological control is maintained, and waterside surfaces are kept clean.
  • Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Say, less than 100 mg/L
  • Calcium. A practical limit for total hardness is often 600 mg/L as CaCO3, although with top quality inhibitors and tight control, up to 1200 mg/L as CaCO3 might be achievable.
  • Chlorides. The lower the better, as chloride is a depassivating ion and reduces the corrosion resistance of many constructional metals. Perhaps 500-600 mg/L chloride in carbon steel systems, but only 200 mg/L maximum in systems containing 304 stainless steel. Also, the system metal surfaces must be kept scrupulously clean!
  • Iron. Iron salts (and to a lesser extent manganese salts) are often to be found in recovered waters and can be ignored unless the level rises to perhaps 0.3 mg/L or more.
  • Oil, Solvents and Hydrocarbons. Even small traces of oil can reduce chemical inhibitor performance and impede heat transfer and therefore must be eliminated.
  • pH. Typically, from pH 7.0 to 90.0
  • Phosphate. Phosphate in recovered waters can often be used as the basis of a chemical inhibitor program. Say 2-3 mg/L total PO4.
  • Silica. The limit of solubility in recirculating cooling water is typically around 150 to 175 mg/L and should not be exceeded.
  • Sulfate. Sulfates are causative agents (along with oxygen, hydrogen, etc.) of various types of concentration cell corrosion, Usually, say, 1800 mg/L is the maximum limit but this varies with several factors. Up to 2,300 mg/L has been tolerated in suitably conditioned systems.
  • Suspended solids (SS). Maximum tolerated levels of SS in recirculating water is perhaps 50 to 60 mg/L.

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Expert Colin Frayne on Influent Water Systems




Is Water the New Energy? Expert Colin Frayne on Influent Water Systems

by Amanda Moreno, Editor-In-Chief


These days, a glass of water is valuable commodity, and not just because we’re sweltering in the midst of those hot summer months. As the population increases, so does our global industrial water usage, which is why Knovel’s next seminar Designing & Managing Influent Water Systems- Keys to Minimizing Risk & Maximizing Flexibility, is such a dynamic topic.

The webinar panel features industry expert Colin Frayne, an accomplished industrial chemist, corrosion engineer and environmental scientist, whose published works include Boiler Water Treatment – Principles and Practice, Volumes I-II and Cooling Water Treatment – Principles and Practice. I recently spoke with Colin to delve into his expertise on responsible water reuse practices.

Friday, June 24, 2011

Cooling Water Treatment Principles and Practices

Principles and Practice
ISBN-13/EAN: 9780820603704
ISBN: 0820603708
Author: Colin Frayne
Chemical Publishing
Book - Hardback
Pub Date: Apr 1, 1999
512 pages